phoneme element
VoiceXML 2.0
Specifies a phonetic pronunciation for the contained text.

Syntax

<phoneme
alphabet = "string"
ph = "string"
/>

Attributes
alphabet
Specifies the phonetic alphabet to use.
darpa The phonetic string is composed of symbols from the DARPA phonetic alphabet.
ph
Required. Specifies the phonetic string using the selected phonetic alphabet.

Parents
audio, emphasis, enumerate, foreach, p, prompt, prosody, s, voice

Children
None.

Remarks
The following table lists the DARPA phonetic alphabet. The example column provides a word that uses the symbol in the phoneme symbol column of the corresponding row. The transcription column provides a translation of the example using the DARPA phonetic alphabet. The character and the corresponding phonetic symbol are underlined in the respective example and transcription columns.
Phoneme Symbol Example Transcription
aa Bob b aa b 1
ae bat b ae t 1
ah but b ah t 1
ao bought b ao t 1
aw down d aw n 1
ax about ax 0 b aw t 1
ay bite b ay t 1
b bet b eh t 1
ch church ch er ch 1
d dig d ih g 1
dh that dh ae t 1
dx butter b ah 1 dx er 0
eh bet b eh t 1
em Chatham ch ae 1 dx em 0
en satin s ae 1 q en 0
er bird b er d 1
ey bait b ey t 1
f fog f ao g 1
g got g aa t 1
hh hot hh aa t 1
ih bit b ih t 1
iy beat b iy t 1
jh jump jh ah m p 1
k cat k ae t 1
l lot l aa t 1
m mom m aa m 1
n nod n aa d 1
ng sing s ih ng 1
ow boat b ow t 1
oy boy b oy 1
p pot p aa t 1
q button b ah 1 q en 0
r rat r ae t 1
s sit s ih t 1
sh shut sh ah t 1
t top t aa p 1
th thick th ih k 1
uh book b uh k 1
uw boot b uw t 1
v vat v ae t 1
w won w ah n 1
y you y uw 1
z zoo z uw 1
zh measure m eh 1 zh er 0
0 Unstressed
1 Primary stress
2 Secondary stress
& Word boundary
pau Silence (AT&T extension)

Known issues
The text to speech (TTS) engine incorrectly pronounces some phonemes when they are concatenated with other phonemes. For example, the phoneme "ae" is pronounced like "i" in "sit" in the phonetic transcription of "Chatham" provided above. Tellme Networks is investigating the issue and will update this document when more information is available.
Examples

When the following example is executed, the TTS engine uses the DARPA phonetic alphabet, to read the examples provided in the table.

<vxml version="2.0" 
  xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/vxml"
>
  <form>
    <block>
      <prompt>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b aa b 1">Bob</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b ae t 1">bat</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b ah t 1">but</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b ao t 1">bought</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="d aw n 1">down</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="ax 0 b aw t 1">about</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b ay t 1">bite</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b eh t 1">bet</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="ch er ch 1">church</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="d ih g 1">dig</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="dh ae t 1">that</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b ah 1 dx er 0">butter</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b eh t 1">bet</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="ch ae 1 dx em 0">Chatham</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="s ae 1 q en 0">satin</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b er d 1">bird</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b ey t 1">bait</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="f ao g 1">fog</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="g aa t 1">got</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="hh aa t 1">hot</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b ih t 1">bit</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b iy t 1">beat</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="jh ah m p 1">jump</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="k ae t 1">cat</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="l aa t 1">lot</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="m aa m 1">mom</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="n aa d 1">nod</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="s ih ng 1">sing</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b ow t 1">boat</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b oy 1">boy</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="p aa t 1">pot</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b ah 1 q en 0">button</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="r ae t 1">rat</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="s ih t 1">sit</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="sh ah t 1">shut</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="t aa p 1">top</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="th ih k 1">thick</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b uh k 1">book</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="b uw t 1">boot</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="v ae t 1">vat</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="w ah n 1">won</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="y uw 1">you</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="z uw 1">zoo</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
        <phoneme alphabet="darpa" ph="m eh 1 zh er 0">measure</phoneme>
        <break time="300ms"/>
      </prompt>
    </block>
  </form>
</vxml>



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